Specific Areas Of Dementia

Subdividing dementia: depending upon the site predominant clinical involvement is of questionable diagnostic value. The Anterior and Posterior, Subcortical and cortical. Anterior the frontal premotor cortex and posterior the parietal and temporal lobes. Under the anterior the behavioural changes and loss of inhibition, antisocial behaviour, facile and irresponsible. Examples: Normal pressure hydrocephalus, Huntington’s chorea metabolic disease.

While in Posterior the disturbance of cognitive function (memory and language) without marked changes in behaviour. Example the Alzheimer’s disease. The Subcortical, apathetic, forgetful and slow, poor ability to use knowledge, associated with other neurological signs and movement disorders. Example: Parkinson’s disease and  AIDS dementia complex. The Cortical, higher cortical abnormalities like dysphasia, agnosia and apraxia. Example: Alzheimer’s disease.

Alzheimer’s disease is the commonest cause of dementia, may be established during life by the early memory failure and slow progression and by excluding other causes. No effective treatment exists. Aids dementia complex mostly due to AIDS, in some patients with HIV is found. Metabolic dementia due to alcohol or chronic subdural haematoma. Tumour presenting as dementia due to intracranial tumour, this is rare but may happen when tumours occur in certain sites.

Improving the quality of life: there is certain scientific evidence of the fact that some herbal remedies (like Ginkgo Biloba and others) can delay the progression of dementia and that long-term use of vitamin E may reduce the chances of developing dementia in old age. However, more research is needed.

There are several psychological techniques to help people cope with dementia, these include reality orientation, which involves regularly reminding patience of information such as the day, date, season and where they are. Since the memory of distant events is rarely impaired, reminiscence therapy which encourages people to talk about the past, may also help by bringing past experience into consciousness. Aromatherapy and art or music therapies are also thought to be beneficial, though there is no scientific evidence to support this.

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